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Rabu, 25 November 2009

Tabel waktu geologi

Eon Era Periode[1] Kala/Seri Peristiwa utama Mulai, juta
tahun yang lalu[2]
Fanerozoikum Kenozoikum Neogen
[3]
Holosen Akhir glasiasi dan kebangkitan peradaban manusia. 0.011430 ± 0.00013[4]
Pleistosen Berkembangnya dan selanjutnya punahnya banyak mamalia besar (megafauna Pleistosen). Evolusi manusia modern secara anatomis. Awal Zaman Es terkini. 1.806 ± 0.005 *
Pliosen Iklim dingin dan kering. Australopitheca; banyak mamalia dan moluska yang saat ini ada mulai muncul. Homo habilis muncul. 5.332 ± 0.005 *
Miosen Iklim moderat; Orogeny di belahan utara. Mamalia dan familia burung modern dikenali. Berbagai kuda dan mastodon berkembang. Rumput tumbuh di mana-mana. Kera pertama muncul. 23.03 ± 0.05 *
Paleogen
[3]
Oligosen Iklim hangat; Evolusi dan diversifikasi pada fauna pesat, terutama mamalia. Evolusi dan penyebaran utama berbagai jenis tumbuhan berbunga modern. 33.9±0.1 *
Eosen Mamalia kuno (mis. Creodont, Condylarth, Uintatheriidae, dll) berkembang. Munculnya beberapa keluarga mamalia "modern". Paus primitif terdiversifikasi. Rumput pertama. Ice cap berkembang di Antarktika. 55.8±0.2 *
Paleosen Iklim tropis. Tumbuhan modern muncul; Mamalia terdiversikasi menjadi beberapa garis keturunan primitif menyusul kepunahan dinosaurus. Mamalia besar pertama (sampai seukuran beruang atau kuda nil kecil). 65.5±0.3 *
Mesozoikum Kapur Atas/Akhir Tumbuhan berbunga berkembang, bersama dengan jenis-jenis baru insekta. Ikan bertulang sejati (Teleostei) modern mulai bermunculan. Ammonita, Belemnoidea, Bivalvia rudist, Echinoidea dan Porifera umum ditemukan. Banyak jenis baru dinosaurus (mis. Tyrannosauridae, Titanosauridae, Hadrosauridae, dan Ceratopsidae) berkembang, juga Crocodilia modern; mosasaurus dan hiu modern muncul di laut. Burung primitif perlahan menggantikan pterosaurus. Mamalia monotremata, marsupialia and eutheria bermunculan. Gondwana terpecah. 99.6±0.9 *
Bawah/Awal 145.5 ± 4.0
Jura Atas/Akhir Gymnospermae (terutama tumbuhan runjung, Bennettitales dan sikas) dan paku-pakuan umum ditemukan. Banyak jenis dinosaurus, seperti sauropoda, carnosaurus, and stegosaurus. Mamalia kecil umum ditemukan. Burung pertama dan hewan melata bersisik (Squamata). Ichthyosaurus dan plesiosaurus berkembang. Bivalvia, ammonita dan Belemnoidea juga banyak dijumpai. Bulu babi sangat umum, juga lili laut, bintang laut, Porifera, Brachiopoda, Terebratulida, dan Rhynchonellida. Terpecahnya Pangaea menjadi Gondwana dan Laurasia. 161.2 ± 4.0
Tengah 175.6 ± 2.0 *
Bawah/Awal 199.6 ± 0.6
Trias Atas/Akhir Dinosaurus mendominasi: Archosaurus di daratan, Ichthyosaurus dan Nothosaurus di lautan, dan Pterosaurus di udara. Cynodonta menjadi lebih kecil dan lebih menyerupai mamalia; mamalia dan crocodilia pertama muncul. Dicrodium merupakan flora umum di daratan. Banyak terdapat amfibi Temnospondylus . Ammonita sangat umum. Koral modern dan ikan bertulang sejati (Teleostei) muncul, dan juga banyak insekta. 228.0 ± 2.0
Tengah 245.0 ± 1.5
Bawah/Awal 251.0 ± 0.4 *
Paleozoikum Perm Lopingian Daratan bergabung menjadi superbenua Pangaea, membentuk Pegunungan Appalachia. Akhir tahap glasial Permo-Carboniferous. Reptilia Synapsida (Pelycosaurus dan Therapsida) melimpah, sementara parareptilia dan [Amfibia Temnospondylia masih umum ditemukan. Pada zaman Perm pertengahan, flora zaman Karbon mulai digantikan oleh tumbuhan runjung (tumbuhan berbiji sejati pertama) dan tumbuhan lumut sejati pertama. Kumbang dan serangga bersayap dua berevolusi. Kehidupan laut berkembang di bagian terumbu dangkal yang hangat; Brachiopoda (Productida dan Spiriferida) , Bivalva, Foraminifera, dan amonit Orthocerida melimpah. Kepunahan massal antara Perm dan Trias terjadi 251 juta tahun yang lalu: 95 persen kehidupan di bumi pun, termasuk seluruh trilobita, graptolita, dan Blastoidea. 260.4 ± 0.7 *
Guadalupian 270.6 ± 0.7 *
Cisuralian 299.0 ± 0.8 *
Karbon[5]/
Pennsyl-
vanian
Atas/Akhir Winged insects radiate suddenly; some (esp. Protodonata and Palaeodictyoptera) are quite large. Amphibians common and diverse. First reptiles and coal forests (scale trees, ferns, club trees, giant horsetails, Cordaites, etc.). Highest-ever oxygen levels. Goniatites, brachiopods, bryozoa, bivalves, and corals plentiful in the seas. Testate forams proliferate. 306.5 ± 1.0
Tengah 311.7 ± 1.1
Bawah/Awal 318.1 ± 1.3 *
Karbon[5]/
Missis-
sippian
Atas/Akhir Large primitive trees, first land vertebrates, and amphibious sea-scorpions live amid coal-forming coastal swamps. Lobe-finned rhizodonts are big fresh-water predators. In the oceans, early sharks are common and quite diverse; echinoderms (esp. crinoids and blastoids) abundant. Corals, bryozoa, goniatites and brachiopods (Productida, Spiriferida, etc.) very common. But trilobites and nautiloids decline. Glaciation in East Gondwana. 326.4 ± 1.6
Tengah 345.3 ± 2.1
Bawah/Awal 359.2 ± 2.5 *
Devon Atas/Akhir First clubmosses, horsetails and ferns appear, as do the first seed-bearing plants (progymnosperms), first trees (the tree-fern Archaeopteris), and first (wingless) insects. Strophomenid and atrypid brachiopods, rugose and tabulate corals, and crinoids are all abundant in the oceans. Goniatite ammonoids are plentiful, while squid-like coleoids arise. Trilobites and armoured agnaths decline, while jawed fishes (placoderms, lobe-finned and ray-finned fish, and early sharks) rule the seas. First amphibians still aquatic. "Old Red Continent" of Euramerica. 385.3 ± 2.6 *
Tengah 397.5 ± 2.7 *
Bawah/Awal 416.0 ± 2.8 *
Silur Pridoli First vascular plants (the whisk ferns and their relatives), first millipedes and arthropleurids on land. First jawed fishes, as well as many armoured jawless fish, populate the seas. Sea-scorpions reach large size. Tabulate and rugose corals, brachiopods (Pentamerida, Rhynchonellida, etc.), and crinoids all abundant. Trilobites and mollusks diverse; graptolites not as varied. 418.7 ± 2.7 *
Atas/Akhir (Ludlow) 422.9 ± 2.5 *
Wenlock 428.2 ± 2.3 *
Bawah/Awal (Llandovery) 443.7 ± 1.5 *
Ordovisium Atas/Akhir Invertebrates diversify into many new types (e.g., long straight-shelled cephalopods). Early corals, articulate brachiopods (Orthida, Strophomenida, etc.), bivalves, nautiloids, trilobites, ostracods, bryozoa, many types of echinoderms (crinoids, cystoids, starfish, etc.), branched graptolites, and other taxa all common. Conodonts (early planktonic vertebrates) appear. First green plants and fungi on land. Ice age at end of period. 460.9 ± 1.6 *
Tengah 471.8 ± 1.6
Bawah/Awal 488.3 ± 1.7 *
Kambrium Atas/Akhir (Furongian) Major diversification of life in the Kambrium Explosion. Many fossils; most modern animal phyla appear. First chordates appear, along with a number of extinct, problematic phyla. Reef-building Archaeocyatha abundant; then vanish. Trilobites, priapulid worms, sponges, inarticulate brachiopods (unhinged lampshells), and many other animals numerous. Anomalocarids are giant predators, while many Ediacaran fauna die out. Prokaryotes, protists (e.g., forams), fungi and algae continue to present day. Gondwana emerges. 501.0 ± 2.0 *
Tengah 513.0 ± 2.0
Bawah/Awal 542.0 ± 0.3 *
Prakam-
brium

[6]
Protero-
zoikum

[7]
Neoprotero-
zoikum
Ediacaran Good fossils of multi-celled animals. Ediacaran fauna (or Vendobionta) flourish worldwide in seas. Trace fossils of worm-like Trichophycus, etc. First sponges and trilobitomorphs. Enigmatic forms include oval-shaped Dickinsonia, frond-shaped Charniodiscus, and many soft-jellied creatures. 630

+5/-30 *

Cryogenian Possible "snowball Earth" period. Fossils still rare. Rodinia landmass begins to break up. 850 [8]
Tonian Rodinia supercontinent persists. Trace fossils of simple multi-celled eukaryotes. First radiation of dinoflagellate-like acritarchs. 1000 [8]
Mesoprotero-
zoikum
Stenian Narrow highly metamorphic belts due to orogeny as supercontinent Rodinia is formed. 1200 [8]
Ectasian Platform covers continue to expand. Green algae colonies in the seas. 1400 [8]
Calymmian Platform covers expand. 1600 [8]
Paleoprotero-
zoikum
Statherian First complex single-celled life: protists with nuclei. Columbia is the primordial supercontinent. 1800 [8]
Orosirian The atmosphere became oxygenic. Vredefort and Sudbury Basin asteroid impacts. Much orogeny. 2050 [8]
Rhyacian Bushveld Formation occurs. Huronian glaciation. 2300 [8]
Siderian Oxygen Catastrophe: banded iron formations result. 2500 [8]
Arkean
[7]
Neoarkean Stabilization of most modern cratons; possible mantle overturn event. 2800 [8]
Mesoarkean First stromatolites (probably colonial cyanobacteria). Oldest macrofossils. 3200 [8]
Paleoarkean First known oxygen-producing bacteria. Oldest definitive microfossils. 3600 [8]
Eoarkean Simple single-celled life (probably bacteria and perhaps archaea). Oldest probable microfossils. 3800
Hadean
[7][9]
Pembentukan bumi (4570 jtl). Zircon, mineral tertua yang diketahui (4400 jtl). c.4570

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Sumber-sumber bacaan dan unduhan

- http://langitselatan.com/, http://www.google.co.id/, http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geografi, http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tornado, http://rachmatwahidi.wordpress.com, http://andimanwno.wordpress.com, http://engineersblogs.blogspot.com, http://geo.ugm.ac.id/archives/100, http://www.e-dukasi.net/ untuk tujuan pembelajaran Geografi di kelas dan umum.

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